Falmouth is located in North Trelawny, bounded on the east by Retreat Heights, on the west by Salt Marsh and on the South by Martha Brae. It is a coastal town with mainly flat lands rising to 300 feet above sea level. Soil type is mainly limestone mangroves along the Rock and Martha Brae main roads.
In the 19th century it served as the shipping port for sugar and other produce from the many estates in the parish. The town was built on the estuary of the Martha Brae river and was the centre of the Baptist Ministry. Falmouth was also the first town in Jamaica and the Western Hemisphere to receive piped water. Williamsburg in Virginia in the United States was recreated based on the layout of Falmouth.
At night, Oyster Bay, which is also known as Luminous Lagoon, glows as it contains the largest concentration of bioluminescent micro-organisms. As a result, the water glows green and moving fish appear “like the trail of a falling comet.”
Falmouth is renowned for its beautiful Georgian architecture, which is characterized by colonnades, wrought iron and balconies. On August 21, 1996 the town was declared a national monument. This was done in order to preserve the many historic buildings in the town, which hitherto were falling into disrepair. To this end, the Falmouth Restoration Company and the Jamaica National Heritage Trust have been working together to encourage owners of privately owned historic homes to apply for grants to repair them under the Falmouth Development Plan. This plan also includes the creation of an Interpretative Center and Museum on Slavery. The town also has the reputation as being one of the best laid out towns in Jamaica.